GLOSSARY IN WORDS AND PICTURES





"A GOZZI"
Describing very wide sleeves that were gathered into wide wristbands, creating a bag shape, like a birds crop (Brown 2001: 67). It was fashionable for both women and men in Italy in the mid 15th century, but fell out of fashion towards the end of the century.





BALZO
Originally describing a turban-like, large headdress from the 15th century in Italy. It was a ring or rounded form rising up at the head, covering the hair of the wearer. The hairline was often plucked, so the forehead was very prominent, and this effect was enlarged by the balzo. The ring had a fundament, assumedly of willow (Herald 1981: 210), wire (Frick 2002: 302) or leather, covered with hair (capello morti), rich textiles, metallic ornaments and/or ribbons and braids. The first balzi were huge, but a smaller version, a sort of "roll" returned into fashion around 1515/1520, expanding in size, especially in Northern Italy, before disappearing for good in the 1540's. The balzi fashion is peculiar to Italy (Herald 1981: 210). Some argue that the 16th century balzo is too unlike the original 15th century balzo, and should be called by another name. Others use balzo as the name of any type of round, big headgarb used in Renaissance Italy.



Read more here: http://home.earthlink.net/~lizjones429/balzo-new.htm





BARAGONI
Also called brodoni. They were large, decorative puffs in the upper part of the sleeve (Landini 2005: 249). The wide sleeves of the 1510's started to narrow in the bottom and become wider at the top. In the 1530's they became gathered, and eventually also smaller, ending in decorative shoulder rolls in the 1550's. This fashion stayed until the end of the century. Landini explains the disappearance of the baragoni as a result of women started using doublets and narrow overdresses as outer garbs, replacing the now oldfashioned mantello.







BERETTINO
A dark grey (almost charcoal) shade. Sometimes used for mourning, but it's also said to have been favoured by Isabella d'Este because it suited her complexion very well (Herald 1981: 210). Males had to obtain permission to wear this colour at meetings of the ruling Collegio in Venice (Frick 2002: 302).



BECA/BECCA/BECCHE
A sort of belt, often of silk or velvet, to which stockings were fastened. It was worn by both men and women, and can be compared to todays garthers.



BIANCO
White. Because of the process needed to make a fabric all white, and because of the difficulties in keeping it clean, white was considered an expensive colour when used in dresses and overgarbs. Unlike today, it wasn't reserved for brides - except for Venice (Landini 2005: 65). However, white was seen as a colour of purity. Emperors, countesses and clericals often resorted to white (often combined with gold or red) when they were to make a grand appearance, both because of the symbolism and the actual value. Keeping white garbs white was difficult, and hence only something rich people would wear.

Some sources tells that Eleonora di Toledo was buried in a white satin dress with brown and golden sfondato velvet embroidery trims (Landini 2005: 71). Others describe it as yellow (Mary Westerman Bulgarella). Reason is that the surviving satin of Eleonora's dress is badly damaged; it might have been a white satin discoloured by the trims, or it might always have been yellow.

Cosimo I de' Medici's natural daughter was named Bianca (called Bia, either short for Bianca or "bambina"). In her famous portrait by Bronzino she is depicted in a white dress, and with a medallion of her father around the neck.





BRACCIA
A Florentine unit of measurement. One braccia of fabric equals 58,8 cm (Landini 2005: 249). Making a gamurra required 10-15 braccia (Woods 2007: 42), approximately 6-9 meters, though I suspect later 16th century dresses with train might have demanded even more. A large mantello worthy a ruler or emperor required around 25 braccia (almost 15 meters) of fabric (Woods 2007: 49).



BROCCHETTA DI SPALLA
An elaborate brooch worn on the shoulder (Brown 2001: 67). They were usually worn at the left shoulder, since this was the side women were depicted (the right side was "male"). When sumptuary legislations in the 1470's forbade women of Florence to wear more than one brooch in total, many shoulder brooches were used as pendants instead. Needless to say, that eventually was forbidden as well... (Brown 2001: 73). But it was probably still common to have a "standard" brooch that could be used as pendant, or on shoulder or head.

Enormous amounts were used on jewellery for a bride. Florentine sumptuary legislations limited the time she was allowed to wear it. A newly wed Florentine girl could wear all her jewellery for 1-2 years after her marriage, and for the next two years she could wear a limited amount of them. But that was it. Once a "matron" she was expected to show modesty in dress and adornment, wearing plainer clothes and little or no jewellery. This is why portraits sometimes show a fairly plain-dressed woman with jewellery laying on a shelf or table in the background. It shows that her status as newly-wed is over. She might own precious jewellery, but they wouldn't be socially acceptable to wear.

This strict practice might be connected with the large amount the in-laws had to spend on dressing up the bride. It was a temporary investment, and not the bride's for life (though probably with exceptions). Limiting the time they could be worn freed valuable capital for a husband. It should be added that different traditions occured in different parts of Italy, and of course this didn't apply on the ladies of ruling families (like Eleonora di Toledo, Isabella and Beatrice d'Este etc).





BROCCHETTA DI TESTA
Also called fermaglio. An elaborate hair brooch, worn on top of the head. Common in the 15.th century Florence and North Italy (Brown 2001: 67). This usually belonged to a hair-do of finely tied-up hair, with the end like a brush or short ponytail buncing out in the back. Such a hairdo was usually adorned with ribbons and frenelli (strings of pearls) to which the brochetta often was attached (Brown 2001: 67).

This style eventually transformed into the 1480-1500 style of a coif, a small cap, covering the tied-up hair in the back, and with curls hanging loose in front. The coif style was then replaced by the balzo before returning to a "veiled style" (see velo).





CAMICIA
Also referred to as camisia, chemise, smock and undergown. Basically meaning a "shirt", it was an undergarment protecting the outer layers of fabric because it was worn directly at the body. It was therefore made of a soft, washable fabric, such as linen (rensa), wool (saia) or sometimes even cotton or silk (Herald 1981: 212, Frick 2002: 304). In the early Renaissance it was hardly visible under the clothes, but later on clothes were slashed and cut to reveal the camicia, and it became more elaborate in decoration. In Venice it often had lace in the neck opening and at the cuffs, and various blackwork is often seen in both Florence and Venice. Black and red were the most common colour for embroidery on camicias, but gold and other nuances also occur (Landini 2005: 125).

Some camicias for women appears to have been tied in one or several points at the neck opening, though some appears to have no opening at all, being wide enough to slip right on. They were in general longer than a man's chemise, so the cut of the camicia was different for men and women (Herald 1981: 212). A source from 1400 describe it as cheaper to buy 20 fine camicias than one fine velvet overgown (Musacchio 2008:162) - but that probably tells more of the expense of the overgown than the camicia...







CAMICIOLA
A knitted jacket, often with elaborate pattern and fine materials. It could be sleeveless, or with sleeves, and might have been worn over the camicia at home, maybe in cold winter months and/or in bed (Landini 2005: 126). Mantua was especially famous for it's knitted products, and some of the Florentine camicioles might have been made here (Landini 2005: 127). It seems to have been worn by both men and female, somewhat in the 16th century, but increasingly popular in the 17th and 18th century.

The picture examples underneathare from different time periods. The first is one from 16th century Florence, a finely knitted jacket with sleeves. It's from Museo Stibbert in Florence. The second is also from the 16th century, and sleeveless. It was likely worn by a man, and is to be featured in the coming "Moda a Firenze" on men's style in 16th century Florence. The red and pale blue ones are Norwegian and probably from the 17th century - but they show they typical details of Renaissance camiciolas very well. The red is from Norwegian Folk Museum, the second from Museum of Industrial Arts, both in Oslo. But they show the typical shape and details of camiciolas as worn in 16th century Italy.







CAPPA/CAPPOTTO
See mantello



CASSONI
A long chest in which clothes were kept in the Renaissance (Hartt 1994: 593). The word means "long/large chest", and applies to those from the 15.th and 16.th century who are ornamented or decorated in various ways. If they came in pair, they very often served as marriage chests, and the insides could be extentively painted with "matrimonial" themes. There is an own book dedicated to cassonis; The Triumph of Marriage: Painted Cassoni of the Renaissance by Cristelle Baskins.

Cassonis are viewable in Titian's "Venus of Urbino" - the women in the background are finding clothes from an open cassoni, and a closed one can be seen to the left. In Tuscany cassonis often came in pair and was meant as wedding gifts or signs of marriage. In Veneto, on the other hand, they were often many and varied, and not as attached to the marriage function as other places.
Read more here: http://www.furniturestyles.net/european/italian/renaissance-cassone.html







CHERMISI
Also referred to as Cremisi (Venetian), Quermes (Spanish), Kermes (English), Qirmizi (Arabian).
Considered the finest and most endurable source for red colour, and with good reason. The name means insect or worm. It refers to the process of making the colour which comes from crushed pregnant females of kermes lice; Coccus illicis (Frick 2002: 305).

The most expensive fabrics, such as brocaded silk velvets, were always dyed with kermes if they were to be red. A statute of 1464 forbade women of Florence to own more than one overgarb (chioppa or giornea) dyed with kermes (Herald 1981: 214). Further on, Pope Paul II decided in 1464 that chermisi should be used as the cardinals' purple instead of cheaper substitutes.

Velvet dyed with chermisi cost app. 2 florins per square braccio to produce (in Florence). A large mantello worthy a ruler or emperor required app. 25 braccia of fabric, and that alone cost 1,5 times more than what a stonemanson earned in a (good) year in Florence (Woods 2007: 49).

In Flemish it was referred to as schaarlaken (possibly meaning "shorn cloth"), and it came to be known in English as "Scarlet" and as "Skarlagen" in Scandinavia (Woods 2007: 31). "Scarlet" can mean both crimson red and a more purplish hue. It reflects the origins of the colour. Originally the colour name referred to how it was made, not the actual shade it gave. As so many other colour descriptions from the Renaissance, the name can mean both the actual dyestuff, the colour it makes, and the fabric dyed with chermisi (Herald 1981: 212, Woods 2007: 31). Still, there are limits to how many shades a specific colour substance can produce, so it gives an idea of what is meant.



CHOPINE
High platform shoes of wood, cork and other light materials. They were originally outdoor shoes that was worn over finer slippers (pianelle) (Frick 2002: 305), and used in both Florence and other Italian city states. They could be slashed or finely decorated, but the sole was more solid than the pianelles, and they also raised the wearer from the muddy streets.

They gained an extreme popularity in Venice in the 16.th century, where they became very high - sometimes so high the wearer had to be aided by a servant on each elbow (Frick 2002: 305). This was a sign of status: the higher the shoes, the more helpless the owner, the more help was needed - meaning it was an expensive fashion. Some reckon them the trademark of the famous Venetian courtesans, but they were worn by noblewomen as well as courtesans. They're made famous by various woodcuts, but there's also some surviving chopines showing the extreme height that came into fashion. Tall surviving examples are always made of leather or suede and was probably for outdoor use, while lower ones covered with silk, velvet and/or lace was probably meant for indoor use (Walford 2007: 17)

A similar type of shoes were called zoccoli, but they were a bit plainer in style, usually not as high or as ornamented, and could be worn by both men and women (Frick 2002: 305).



See this website for more info: http://aands.org/raisedheels/index.html





CINTURE
Basically a belt, here in the context of a girdle. An ornamental belt, often of gold, gems and/or pearls, sometimes only a metal chain or a piece of fabric, with various items attached to the hanging end. The items hanging in the end could be small bags, fans and sables (Landini 2005: 165), or also containers of perfume or purely decorative tassels or beads. The girdle almost always follows the shape of the bodice, underlining the points and curves. The demand for girdles was so popular that goldsmiths often made then in large quantities, without commission, to sell on the open market (Musacchio 2008: 179). Such a quantity can be seen in a depiction of "Saint Eligius in his shop" from ca. 1370 (Prado).


FABRIC BELTS AND BUCKLES




METAL CHAINS, PEARLS AND GEMS







CIOPPA
A sort of overgown. Known as cioppa in Tuscany and Naples, but as pellanda in the north of Italy, and as veste or sacco in Bologna and various other places (Herald 1981: 214).

There were variations of the cioppa: they could be gathered (raccolta) in flat pleats (pieghe piatte) from the neckline, be long and narrow (a cannoncini), or high-necked (accollato) for elder women (Frick 2002: 306). The cioppa could have long, hanging sleeves in various shapes, and women wore it over the gamurra (which again was worn over the camicia).



COAZZONE
A broad plait or roll of hair, hanging down the back. Most often decorated with ribbons or braidings, and often worn with a trinzale, a sort of fine fabric or metallic cap covering the back of the head (Herald 1981: 215). It was often "held in place" by a fine adorned string, a lenza crossing the forehead. This string could have a piece of jewellery or another decorative element attached (as is the case with "La Belle Ferronière" by Leonardo da Vinci). The hairstyle was typical for Milan and the Lombardian fashion, where it was imported from Spain by Beatrice d'Este, but it also briefly gained popularity in Tuscany.







COLLETTO
Can also be referred to as gorgiera or coverciere.

Can mean both a collar, a partlet and a jerkin (Landini 2005: 250). The partlet is the most interesting item when it comes to female fashion. It started as a rather unornamented shawl-like piece of garb, often of very fine silk. Some were worn on top of the bodice, some underneath. The former seems to have been common in the early Renaissance, while the latter became more common in the 16.th century.

Partlets in Italy are thought to be a response to decrees ordering women to cover their generous neck openings, for example a 1464 decree from Florence (Thompson, Festive Attyre). But the very fine silk used for the earliest partlets didn't cover up a woman - if anything, it draw attention to the chest area rather than concealing it. Throughout the 16.th century partlets became more ornamented, embroidered, pleated, braided. It became custom to wear them under the bodice, to veil low necklines, and they were fastened under the arms or at the waist by ribbons or chords (Landini 2005: 250). Late in the century they also got collars and/or ruffs, but unlike Spanish and Flemish fashion, Italian women still showed off the chest. Eventually, the fashion envolved into free-standing ruffs and "millstones" typical for the 17.th century (Earnshaw 1985: 15).







COPRICALLA
A general term for head-coverings or head gears similar to what we would call "hats" today - bonnets, bavieres, berets and hats in general. Considered a masculine fashion in the first half of the 1500's, it became increasingly popular in the latter part of the century. Much has been ascribed to the fashion Eleonora di Toledo brought to Florence in the 1540's. She was an active woman, accompanying her husband where he went, and joining various hunt and horseback events. For this she needed practical head garbs, and joining the general continental trend, she adapted the male head garbs (Landini 2005: 157).

Bonnets and the likes were often bought as a finished production rather than being custom made (Landini 2005: 157). They were often made of black velvet, since that could be used to most kind of outfits, but sometimes they were made to match a specific dress as well.

Sumptuary laws of Milan from 1565 seemes to have allowed women to wear "male" head gears only in case of necessity - protection from weather, and in case of illness (Landini 2005: 158), but elsewhere in Italy it seems to have been both common and allowed. Together with the doublet and the zimarra the female dress became all the more masculine in the second half of the16.th century - which was probably what the officials disliked.







COTTA
Considered to be the summer version, or lighter version, of the gamurra. It describes a woman's basic gown, often with sleeves of another fabric than the dress (Herald 1981: 215). It is believed to be a bit fuller in cut than the gamurra, possibly because the thinner fabrics used had less give than the thicker wools and brocades (Herald 1981: 215).



CRIMSON
See "Chermisi".



DAMASCHINO
Sometimes also "domaschino". It's believed to derive from Damascus, hence the name. It describes a single-coloured fabric which is firm, shiny and reversible, and which has a woven design (Herald 1981: 215).



GAMURRA
Also called gamurrino, camora, zimarra, camurra, zottana, gonella or zupa (see also sottana). Considered to be the basic version of a woman's gown. In 15.th century Florence it was probably the generic word for "dress", because it was worn by all levels of society, and could be made of any type of fabric (Frick 2002: 309). Up until the 1450's the garb could be worn alone, and the sleeves were of the same fabric as the dress, but later on it was custom to wear an out-of-doors garb overneath, and the sleeves could be separate and of a richer fabric (Frick 2002: 309, Herald 1981: 217), or not worn at all. It was usually unlined in the 15.th century (Herald 1981: 217).

Making a gamurra required 10-15 braccia, so gamurras with richly made fabrics therefore formed a direct indication of the economic value of a woman (Woods 2007:42).







GIORNEA
A long, sleeveless overgown. Often open in front and down the sides, and often elaborately trimmed and decorated. The open front and sides allowed the underdress to show through. The giornea often had a train, and there were many sumptuary laws and discussions about the lenght and extravaganza of these trains (Frick 2002: 309). The giornea was worn similar to the cioppa, bun unlike the latter, the giornea was sleeveless and open at the sides (Frick 2002: 309). It had it's origins in a military dress for day battle in antique times (Frick 2002: 309).

Jacqueline Herald describes it as a summer garment, more popular in Florence than in the north of Italy, but according to her the Tuscan version could also be lined with fur and worn in the colder months. It was considered a garb for the young (Herald 1981: 218), but by fashion rather than by law. According to a 1456 law, a woman was allowed to own two outer garbs of silk, be it a giornea or a cioppa; one for summer wear and one for winter wear (Herald 1981: 218).







GUADO
A fabric dyestuff from a plant from the mustard family. Gave various blue shades; sky blue, clear blue, turquoise and a navy/black colour.



GUARNELLO
A loose, sheer overdress (worn over a regular dress), was used at home and after birth - hence very few depictions of such garbs exist. Some has argued that it is not too unlike the sheer chemise like garbs Botticelli's "Three graces" wears in his "Primavera", but it can also be seen in his portrait of "Smeralda Bandinelli" (1470's) in London (Musacchio 2008: 84)





MANTELLO
Plural "mantelli", English "mantle". An over-cloak for both men and women, long and most often of wool (Frick 2002: 313), and could be lined or unlined. It was draped over the shoulders; by elder women often over the head as well (Herald 1981: 222). In "all' anticha"-styles it's often worn "ecliptical across the body. The actual cut of the mantello seldom changed, but the fashion dictated various ways to wear it (Herald 1981: 223). A mantle is always sleeveless.

Mantles are known from antiquity, and is mentioned in the Bible. It was a common garb in the antiquity, protecting the wearer from rain and cold, as well as the burning sun. It remained the preferred outer garb in Florence until the mid 1500, when Eleonora di Toledo changed the fashion by introducing more fitter overgarbs. Eleonora's inventory lists shows only one mantello, but multiple zimarras and overgowns (Landini 2005: 32). However, it remained popular (or at least common) by elder women for many years still. The garb lives on in clerical vestiments - the long cloaks of the priests, bishops and the pope are referred to as a mantle ("mandyas" in the Orthodox church).

Most religions paintings shows the Virgin Mary or saints draped in various mantelli, because of the serenity and classical look it gives. Beware, though, that blue might not have been as common in mantles as the Madonna paintings can give an impression of... Blue and red are the classical colours of the Virgin, illuding her celestial nature (blue) and her passion (red). In paintings (especially those of the early Renaissance) her mantle and dress will also often show ornamental golden embroideries and details which might not have been common amongst ordinary women.

Purely decorative mantles also existed (Landini 2005: 150). They could be of transparent cloths, maybe golden, and is hard to distinguish from the large veils becoming increasingly popular in the second half of the 16.th century. Several such mantles are present in the inventory lists of Cammilla Martelli, second wife of Cosimo I de' Medici (Landini 2005: 150).

A short version - the mantellina - also existed. It was a short cloak, sleeveless, of either wool or silk. It could be lined with fur for extra warmth (Landini 2005: 151). SImilar in appearances are the short masculine capes, which was adopted into female fashion. It was often fastened in front with a Hungarian-style frog closure (like the zimarra) or buttons, and could be decorated with trims and slits. The latter was especially popular in Germany, but is also found in Eleonora's inventory lists (Landini 2005: 152).







MONACHINO
A brownish hue traditionally used for domestic garbs and for mourning garbs, because of the fairly inexpensive dye stuff used to create the colour. It takes it name after monk's robes, and is usually plain brown or cinnamon brown. It isn't a sign of someone being poor, but if used in a painted context where all other figures wears something colourful and/or patterned, it might illude that the person dressed in brown is a working woman, or in mourning. If painted alone, it can also allude a sort of intimacy, where the painted (and viewer) is invited "home" to the sitter. But if painted under Savonarola's years of spiritual leader in Florence, it might also be a sign of obeying his condemnation of female vanity and pomp (Brown 2001: 72). In the will of Caterina Strozzi there is listed vesti di panni monachini (monachino brown cloth fabric) in enough quantity for making mourning clothes for daughers and sisters (Musacchio 2008: 244).







PERLA
Pearl. For many centuries one of the most sought-after kind of jewellery, telling something about both quality and rank of the sitter. As cultivated pearls is a newer phenomenon, real pearls were rare and therefore expensive. Round pearls were usually used for necklaces, while tear-shaped ones were used for pendants and earrings.

Sumptuary legislations passed in Venice in 1562 forbade women to wear pearls more than twelve years after their marriage, or after giving their hand (Fortini Brown 2004: 17). In Florence, it could be even shorter time span - sometimes it was reserved for unmarried women and brides, sometimes it was allowed to wear only a few years after marriage. Wives of rulers and their ladies-in-waiting were of course excepted from these rules (Landini 2005: 27).

It is said about Eleonora di Toledo that her everyday outfit was much like the general Florentine woman, in cut and fabrics. It was her elaborate jewellery that made her stand out, especially the long pearl necklace she was so fond of (Landini 2005: 26). Other noble women were restricted by sumptuary legislations "Noble women might own only one string of pearls with a value not exceeding 500 scudi" (Pope-Hennessy 1985: 221). Eleonora also used pearls for decorating her classical hair snoods and partlets, and for her earrings. Only her daughter Isabella is depicted with similar earrings. She is also said to have gotten into a quarrel with the artist Cellini because he didn't think much of a pearl necklace she desired: (Pope-Hennessy 1985: 223).





PIANELLE
Slipper-like footwear without heel section (Landini 2005: 251) - can be compared with todays slippers, but they were worn like a shoe, as the soles tended to be high and steady. Some were rather plain in shape, others had lacing, buckles or slashes on top. Especially those with an open toe allowed them to be worn with flat shoes inside. These flat shoes were often of leather (Landini 2005: 144), and could be used on their own at home.

Few shoes are registrated in Eleonora di Toledo's inventory lists, but lots of pianelli. They were often matched with the outfit, but Eleonora seems to have preferred red - 32 of her 52 pairs were red (Landini 2005: 143). However, the number of green pairs were increasing after the 1550's, suggesting that she liked to wear green pianelli opposite her many red and brown dresses (Landini 2005: 143).

Other type of footwear from this period was the chopine (platform shoe), the scapini (flat shoes) and the borzacchini (ancle boots) (Landini 2005: 143).





SACCOCCIA
Also referred to as tasca.

A decorated pocket-like purse which was tied to the waist, to a belt or the stays. It could also be permanently sewn on. It was usually worn underneath the skirt, and could be reached through a split, though for domestic wear it was often worn on top of the skirt. The shape could be tear shaped or more oval, and there could be embroidery/organic patterns or trims decorating the front side. Saccoccias are well documented through Allori's paintings.





SENGALETTO
Also called Stringhe di sengaletto. The string used to lace bodices. They were often of silk, with knots or metal points at the end, to make them easier to thread (Landini 2005: 83). The common way of lacing up until the 18.th century seems to have been passing the lace from one eyelet to the other, fixing it at the top with a know (Landini 2005: 83). This in contrast to modern lacing, where two lacing ends cross eachother and is tied at the top.

Read more about period lacing here: http://www.festiveattyre.com/research/lacing/lacing.html





SOTTANA
Technically an underdress, as "sotto" means "under". But it was considered a dress in it's own right in big chunks of the 16.th century in Italy (Landini 2005: 251). Can equal the English term "petticoat". Moda a Firenze's Landini seems to use this term in the same way as Frick and Herald use the term gamurra - as an independent, basic dress which could be used alone, or under a wider overdress (see zimarra), when only sleeves and front section of the sottana would be visible. The long robes used under coronation cloaks, in for example Cosimo I de' Medici's coronation outfit, is also referred to as "sottana".





VELO
A veil. In the mid and late 15.th century, fine veils often surrounded the finely bound up chignonhairstyles seen in profile portraits. In these portraits, the veil is often covering the ears. According to popular tradition, the Virgin Mary conceived through the ear, so a fine veil covering a young woman's ear would assure she stayed a virgin until married (Brown 2001: 67). The finely tied-up hair often had the end hanging loose, like a short ponytail, and it was usually adorned with frenelli - strings of pearls ending in an elaborate hair brooch (see brochetta di testa).

Veils gained popularity again in the second half of the 16.th century. It was traditionally a sign of brides and married women, but in the mid and late 1500 it also became a fashion item (Landini 2005: 139). In Florence and Venice it appeared with increasing frequency from the 1560's, while it seems to have been fashionable in Rome already in the 1540's.

According to Moda a Firenze it was obligatory for Florentine women to wear veils after two years of marriage - at the same time they were prohibited to wear much of their bridal jewellery - but these transparent veils were incorporated into elaborate hair-do's rather than modestly covering the hair.







ZIMARRA
See also gamurra.

Moda a Firenze describes it as being a loose, long overgown without waistseams. It often had braided frog fastenings in front, and sometimes long, hanging sleeves. It's probably inspired by Turkish caftans (Landini 2005: 252), and was very popular in Italy in the second half of the 16.th century.

Eleonora di Toledo favoured a co-ordinate set of petticoat and overgown, and wears such ensembles in most of her portraits. Eleonora's inventory lists shows only one mantello, but multiple zimarras and overgowns (Landini 2005: 32). Her daughers, on the other hand, seems to have preferred more fitted overgowns with a raised collar and creative sleeves (Landini 2005: 38). There were short-sleeved summer versions, and fur-lined winter versions. The zimarras often had pockets for hankerchiefs and similar small items (Landini 2005: 110).







REFERENCES

Brown, David Alan (red) (2001) Virtue & Beauty, Princeton University Press, Oxfordshire
Earnshaw, Pat (1985) Lace in Fashion, from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, B. T. Batsford Ltd. London
Fortini Brown, Patricia (2004) Private lives in Renaissance Venice. Art, Architecture, and the Family, Yale University Press, New Haven and London
Frick, Carole Collier (2002) Dressing Renaissance Florence: Families, Fortunes, and Fine Clothing, Johns Hopkins University Press,
Hartt, Frederick (1994) History of Italian Renaissance Art. Painting, sculpture, architecture, Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, New York
Herald, Jacqueline (1981) Renaissance Dress in Italy 1400-1500, Bell & Hyman, London
Landini, Roberta Orsi and Bruna Niccoli (2005) "Moda a Firenze 1540-1580, Edizioni Polistampa Pagliai, Florence
Musacchio, Jacqueline Marie (2008) Art, marriage and family in Florentine Renaissance palace, Yale University Press, New Haven and London
Pope-Hennessy, John (1985) Cellini, MacMillan, London
Thompson, Jennifer: http://www.festiveattyre.com/research/flornotes/flornotes.html
Walford, Jonathan (2007) The seductive shoe. Four centuries of fashion footwear, Thames and Hudson, London
Woods, Kim and more (2007) Viewing Renaissance Art, Yale University Press, London


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